Category Archives: business industry

Simple, Yet Effective Techniques To Reduce Transformer Noise

A transformer is an electronic device made of stainless steel windings and cores and performs the function of supplying power from one source to another through electromagnetic induction. The device is very useful in commercial as well as industrial sectors and more and more people switch to the technology for better power supply. Though, the device in some cases creates a lot of noise that can be harmful to the users and the device itself. Therefore, it is important to take some serious actions to get rid of the transformer noise, but before you hit the head and looking for a way, it is important for you to understand what the main cause behind such noise is. Identifying the main cause helps you solve the problem more efficiently and effectively. So, what are you waiting for? Just scroll down to get the answer to your query.

Basically, There Are Two Major Causes Of The Transformer Noise Such As:

  • Magnetostriction: It is basically a property of ferromagnetic materials that leads them to extract or contract their shape or dimension during the magnetization, which may create vibration in the device that automatically leads to transformer noise. You can simply control the Magnetostriction by the transformer design, so, you have to be very particular while making the choice of its type, model, and size.
  • Mechanical Abrasion: Another major reason of transformer noise is Mechanical Abrasion. Any sort of force and stress on the device creates vibration. Any vibration comes from the core is transferred to anything else attached to it that may cause the transformer noise.

Simple Techniques To Fix The Issue:

  • Reducing flux density can be very helpful in eliminating the transformer noise. Though, it is an expensive method because for reducing flux density you have to increase the amount of stainless steel in the core that requires investment.
  • Don’t worry, if your budget doesn’t allow you to pick the above technique, so you can go for another option that is the use of suitable adhesive to minimize the vibration that automatically reduces transformer noise. Putting adhesive between lamination layers is not so expensive and delivers you the effective and expected results. But you have to be sure that sheets are free from any contamination and also don’t have any oil scum.

These simple tricks and techniques help you get rid of transformer noise and all of are very easy to adopt. But make sure you consult an expert before picking any of the techniques as the method can be varied as per the model of your device.

Types of Brass Fittings and Uses

Most systems which carry alkaline fluids choose brass, brass is a metal which is ductile, attractive metal machinable and are also resistant to corrosion. Brass has Copper, Zinc, Chromium to an extent which makes it rust proof, Lead in brass makes it machinable. Copper, Zinc with a combination of aluminum makes it ductile, even resistant to dezincification which means brass can be used for fittings which can be exposed to a very alkaline environment, which can pass a high degree of Chloride tests. The brass fittings are used in plumbing and transmission of Corrosive chemicals due to it being an alloy of Copper. Brass Fittings with lower percentage of Zinc, Higher percentage of Aluminum and Chromium, is very robust to Corrosion, Oxidation and is always used in environment where the application can fail due to rusting and can be also used in High Pressure environment.

The Brass has excellent Characteristics, they are

1. It is a Non-ferromagnetic material.

2. The Brass is different from other metals, they are easy to recycle.

3. The Brass has a higher Malleability as compared to Zinc or Bronze.

4. It has fascinating acoustic properties suitable to use in Musical Instruments.

5. The Brass has low friction characteristics.

6. It’s a good conductor of heat and conducts 28% of Electricity.

7. The casting of Brass is easy and has almost lower melting point.

8. The Brass is totally resistant to corrosion, also resistant from corroding salt water.

The Applications of the Brass In the Musical Devices:

The Brass being a good malleable and has a sufficient acoustic properties it is well suited for making musical instruments like tubas, French horns, trombones, Trumpets and bells.

In the Industrial Uses:

Unlike the iron, Brass doesn’t create sparks when it is subjected to friction, where sparks can create a fire mishap. Industrial pipes carrying highly inflammable gases and chemicals are fitted with brass valves.

Brass has antibacterial Qualities:

Brass mainly contains copper and Zinc contents which makes it an efficient antibacterial surface. The copper based paints acting as antibacterial are used in painting smaller to larger boat hulls.

In Air conditioning and Heat recovery systems:

Brass is perfectly anti-corrosion and good thermal conductivity, due to which they are used in air conditioning and heat exchangers.

In Ornamental Objects:

Brass looks like gold having attractive shining properties which are used in art, crafts and jewellery. It has been also used in decoration of the house taps, door handles, window handles and furniture fixtures.

Promoting the Benefits of Work Order Software

Work order software (CMMS software) is a key part of a successful equipment maintenance program. Work orders are typically one or more tasks assigned to one or more maintenance personnel for the purpose of equipment item. These tasks are for preventive maintenance, projects, repair maintenance or other types of work. The maintenance staff enters, updates, assigns and closes work orders. This requires a certain level of commitment to the work order software and the expectation of benefits for the expended effort. As such, promoting the benefits of maintenance software is every bit as important and making the work order software easy to use.

  • What are the benefits of work order software to your organization?
  • How are the benefits of work order software promoted to maintenance employees?

Benefits of Work Order Software to Your Organization
The immediate and short-term benefits of using this software are as follows.

  • Easier delivery and communication of work assignments.
  • Balanced workload.
  • Improved spares management.
  • Better management and accountability of work assignments.
  • Improved equipment reliability.
  • Cost savings through analysis and resulting process improvement.

One of the main benefits this software is the ability to deliver the work assignments to personnel using a paperless system. Work orders are emailed in user-friendly formats such as Adobe Acrobat. This saves paper and consistently delivers the work assignments to the same place every time. Alternatively if a paper system is preferred, then automatic printing of assigned tasks is possible. Some more advanced software solutions provide scheduled automatic task assignments. This capability also frees up the maintenance manager as manual assignments ate reduced substantially with this automated system. Lastly, work orders are accessible directly from the software itself. This avoids email and paper use; however, access to a computer that either has the software loaded or has a web link to the CMMS system is required in this case.Balancing the workload over time and resources is possible with a scheduling tool such as work order software. Organizing tasks based upon available resources optimizes these resources and results in more work completed in the same amount of time. Spares linked to work templates results in automatic spares usage and allocation to the task. This feature of many CMMS solutions results is consistent use of the correct spare part for the job and better accounting of spares use. Some CMMS systems provide live links to equipment runtime components (such as hour meters) further automating the work assignment procedure.

In addition to immediate and short-term CMMS benefits long-term benefits may accrue in as little as six months depending upon level of use. The more the software is used the greater the benefits in general. Below is a listing of some of the long-term benefits of using work management software.

  • Querying the work history database simplifies compliance reporting.
  • Analysis of work history guides the maintenance manager in allocation of work.
  • Reporting spares usage provides a guide for restocking.
  • Reliability and overall equipment effectiveness KPIs optimize task assignments adding tasks in some cases and removing tasks in other cases.

Promoting the Benefits of Work Order Software to Employees
Choosing equipment maintenance software that is intuitive and accessible is a key factor in promoting the use of the software. Additionally, user screen customization is beneficial in that it gives the user a sense of personalization and control over the system. This user-level customization generally relates to screen colors, default screen, screen labels and other preferred settings. Configuring the software so that maintenance users are able to manage their own work has benefits as well. Studies have shown that a sense of accomplishment with work is a primary job satisfaction indicator. Use of work order software provides this satisfaction as maintenance employees see exactly what work is required and close out their own work orders. In many cases, this leads to improved morale and greater productivity. This is only possible if user level roles and permissions are available within the software.By adopting this management style, users feel empowered and feel a greater sense of ownership of the equipment they are working on. Once again, this leads to improved morale and productivity.

Another group of software user are the personnel that request work. Making it simple for an inexperienced worker to submit a repair ticket to the software encourages the use of the system. In many cases a web interface is best for this function as it is accessible from many locations and various devices.

Promoting the benefits of work order software benefits your organization with the ultimate result of improving equipment reliability and the reducing maintenance costs.

Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Tubing

What is UHMW-PE?
UHMW-PE stands for Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene. It is the highest quality polyethylene (PE) available, designed for heavy duty work and a wide range of applications. It brings savings in a series of heavy applications. The ultra-high molecular weight is the secret of the unique properties of this polymer. Its high-density polyethylene resin has a weight of molecule ranging from 3 to 6 million, compared to 300,000 to 500,000 for (HMW) resins. That difference is what ensures that this material is strong enough to withstand abrasion and impact better than lower level poly products. The high molecular weight of UHMW-PE means that it will not melt or flow as molten liquid. The processing methods are derived from those metal powder technologies. UHMW-PE cannot be processed and shaped by conventional plastic processing techniques (injection molding, blow molding or thermoforming). Compression molding is the most common conversion process used with this resin because it produces a stronger, more consistent product.

Ultra High Molecular Weight (UHMW) is a polymer designed with a unique combination of wear and corrosion resistance, low friction and impact resistance. UHMW is resistant to chemical attack and moisture absorption and retains its key physical properties at -30 ° C.

The very high molecular weight (UHMW) of polyethylene mostly outlives all other materials, including metals, nylon, urethane and fluoroplastics.

Other attributes of UHMW Ultra High Molecular Weight Sheet products include:
• Should be resistant to abrasion
• Should have a low coefficient of friction
• Should be easy to machine
• Should have a low noise level
• Should be self-lubricating
• Should not absorb moisture
• Should be non-toxic and have a low friction
• Should have a high Impact strength (will not break or shatter)
• Should be resistant to chemical
• Should be FDA and USDA accepted
• Broad temperature range (-450oC to +180oF)

Engineering specifications for UHMW Ultra High Molecular Weight Sheet are:
• Tensile Break: 5,800 psi
• Static friction: 0.15
• Flexural Modulus: 110000
• Hardness: 68
• Yield Point: 3050
• Continuous Service Temperature:180° deg. F

Applications include: spindles, bearings, chain grommets, chain guides, duct covers, gears, grain separators, casting liners, guides, mixers, blades, roller guides, spiral freezers, separators, ventilation plates and filters, carrying straps


UHMW plastic films can be used for various industrial applications including, but not limited to:
• Plastic production
• Food processing
• Gears and gears
• Truck lining
• Hydrofoil polymer
• Paper and Registration
• Mining, agro-industrial and electrical industry
• Defense systems, springs, helmets

Automation of Industrial Processes

The rapid expansion of a huge international market requires the industrial sector to optimize production processes to achieve a greater market share and increase competitiveness. To achieve this, engineering has promoted the development of areas such as mechanics, electronics and robotics to manage and consolidate the automation of industrial processes.

Automation is the implementation of intelligent systems and technologies to operate machinery and control production processes, regardless of human operation in jobs that require greater effort and represent a huge risk to the health and welfare of workers. Currently, there are three types of automation in accordance with the degree of production and needs of a certain industry:

Fixed Automation:

Designed for large-scale manufacturing: A specialized machine or equipment is used to produce a part of a product or the product itself, in a fixed and continuous sequence. This type of automation is ideal for producing large volumes of products that have a long-life cycle, an invariable design and a broad consumer demand. Its main limitations are the high initial cost and the lack of flexibility of the equipment to adapt.

Programmable Automation:

Suitable for a smaller production volume, segmented by batches, programmable automation allows to change or reprogram the sequence of operation, by means of a software, to include the variations of the product. Among the most used equipment for this type of automation are numerical control machines, robots and programmable logic controllers.

Flexible Automation:

Designed for an average production level, flexible automation is the extension of programmable automation. It reduces the programming time of the equipment and allows to alternate the elaboration of two products (in series) when mixing different variables. Flexibility refers to the ability of teams to accept changes in the design and configuration of the product, thus reducing costs for companies.

Advantages of Industrial Automation

  • Decreases manufacturing costs
  • Increases the efficiency of the production process.
  • Speeds the response to market demands.
  • Replaces the man with complicated industrial processes that endanger his physical integrity
  • Favors business competitiveness.
  • Improves the security of the processes and the quality of the production.

Disadvantages of Industrial Automation

  • Generates technological dependence
  • Requires a large initial investment
  • Lack of trained personnel to manage the equipment
  • Susceptibility to technological obsolescence
  • The resistance of the workers to the change

One of the main challenges of the implementation of automated systems in industries is to balance the work done by computerized equipment and robots with the work performed by the operators. While technology helps to optimize processes and limits human intervention, it does not replace it completely. The error is to associate industrial automation with unemployment since human presence is necessary for the management, supervision and control of complex production processes.

3 Types of Financial Fraud In Business

Business fraud can have a monumental impact on an organization. There are many types of fraud that go by different names, such as financial statement fraud, bribery and corruption and asset misappropriation. It is often the case that fraud instigated by an employee will involve more than one type of fraud. Also, business fraud is not always easy to detect because it does not always show up in a company’s official accounts system. In general, the most typical way to detect this type of fraud is by receiving a tip from an employee, a customer, or an outside vendor.

Here is an overview of the different financial fraud in business:

Asset misappropriation

Asset misappropriation is the type of fraud that involves a member of staff who uses their position to take from their employers. This fraud is often committed by those trusted to manage the interests and assets of a company, which can include board members, employees or directors.

This type of fraud activity can include theft of company formulas, patents, or sensitive data, theft of credit notes or vouchers, inventory theft, theft of money or check forgery.

Any company that suffers from asset misappropriation will experience cash flow issues in some form. Plus, it can also have a negative impact on staff morale and the company’s reputation. It is believed that over 90% of business fraud is related to asset misappropriation which makes it by far the most common issue. On average, the lost from this type of fraud is in the region of $150,000 per case.

Bribery and corruption

Bribery and corruption is the next most common issue related to fraud in a business environment. Even though this type of fraud is less common than asset misappropriation, the average cost of a bribery scheme is significantly higher, and likely to exceed over half a million dollars per case.

The type of schemes involved in this area are quite broad and can include substitution of inferior goods, manipulation of contracts, bribes to influence decision-making, shell company schemes and kickbacks.

Financial statement fraud

Financial statement fraud takes place less frequently, but is almost certainly to be the most experience per case. On average, this type of fraud can lead to a company losing up to $2 million per case. This fraud involves an entity or individual falsifying earnings or income statements in an attempt to make a financial gain for them.

This type of fraud can include manipulating a company’s records in relation to more favorable loan terms, an improvement in year-end bonuses, or influencing the stock price.

Passion and Business

Every business person will experience challenges. This is a default setting in life – Challenges will always come. But, what separates the businesses that rise and rise, from those that experience failure after failure?

(Caveat: This is not to say that there are businesses that never fail. ALL businesses fail at some point. Some, however, rise from ashes and shine through.)

Passion, then, is the key ingredient between throwing in the towel, or getting up to fight the next round. There is a refining moment where every business owner goes through intense heat. This heat can either polish you or finish you completely but it all depends on the level of passion in the business.

To always keep your goals ahead of you is tough when everything is bursting at the seams. This is why asking questions is a survival skill.

“Why am I doing this? What works? What doesn’t? What can I do better?”

These questions tackle the level of passion you are carrying for the business. Sometimes, answering these questions may make you revisit exactly how you ended up in that business. This in turn focuses on your motivators. They are the little coals that keep your passion alive. They make going through the grime seem worthwhile even though the outlook seems bleak. As long as you keep asking these questions, you automatically take your mind to your motivators. That’s why challenges really should never worry you, but dwindling passion should ring alarm bells!

So, when passion starts to dwindle, simply repeat the questions, “Why am I doing this? What works? What doesn’t work? What can I do better?”

Once you have your mind on your motivators, the dying passion will be revived once again.

Why am I doing this? It’s the path towards achieving goal X, Y, Z…

What works? So far, what have I achieved? Am I still on my way there?

What doesn’t work? What has derailed me on this course? Is what I’m doing still viable? If I change course, what will still take me to goal X, Y, Z…?

What can I do better? What hasn’t stalled but isn’t performing well either? How can I affect the rate of growth? Do I really need more money? Can I do it differently? Can I borrow a strategy? Who has done this and it’s working for them?

When stalling, don’t resign. Ask. What you fear will always paralyze you. Once you question its power, you have a fighting chance left. Always ask.

The Importance of Energy Use Intensity in Improving Energy Efficiency

Do you think your business is spending too much on electricity? If so, you need to find a way to reduce your energy consumption and make the most of your energy costs. There are a lot of options that can help you. However, you must first understand energy use intensity and its role in improving your energy efficiency.

You go through your fixed overhead costs and get stumped by how much it is. What do you do? You find ways to cut them down, of course. Energy expenses take up one of the largest percentages of your company’s monthly budget. Which is a good thing because unlike other aspects such as employee payments and business operations, energy expenses can be reduced.

Commercial buildings contribute more than twenty percent of the total energy consumption of the country, an average thirty percent of which goes to waste. Just knowing your building’s total energy consumption cannot help you optimize energy efficiency. President of WeCompete Energy CEO Mr. Resides states, “With knowledge of your energy use intensity, you can determine whether your building is using too much energy for its size and help you decide how much of your consumption you need to reduce.”

What is Energy Use Intensity?

Energy use intensity (EUI) measures a building’s energy efficiency. It is expressed as a function of the building size by identifying annual energy usage per square foot of your building. Simply put, it can be computed by dividing your total energy consumption for the year by the total floor area of your building.

There are two types of EUIs: the site type and the source type. The site type EUI is used to measure the amount of energy utilized in a building while the source type EUI represents the total amount of energy used to run a company and its operations; this includes energy used for delivery and transportation processes.

How to compute for EUI?

Now that we have established that EUI is energy use per square foot per year, it is time to learn how to compute for it. Compute for the EUI by dividing gross energy utilized in a year, expressed in kilowatt-hour or kilo-British Thermal Units (kBTUs), over total square footage of the building.

For example:

You own a two-story building with the main floor measuring around 20,000 square feet and the second-floor measure 15,000 square feet. Your building consumed a total of 2,250,000 kilowatts for the year.

Convert your consumption in kilowatts to kBTUs. You can obtain the kBTUs if you multiply your total energy consumption by 3.412 (1 kilowatt is equivalent to 3.412 kBTUs). Multiplying 1,550,000 kilowatts by 3.412 gives us an annual energy use of 5,288,600 kBTUs.

Now, compute for the total area of your building. In this case, it is 20,000 square feet + 15,000 square feet. That gives us 35,000 square feet.

Finally, get your EUI by dividing your annual energy use in kBTUs by your total area in square feet. That would be 5,288,600 kBTUs per year over 35,000 square feet. The EUI of your building is 151.1 kBTU/ sq. ft.

What causes variations in EUI?

A low EUI signifies good energy performance. Currently, no standard determines whether an EUI is good or not because EUIs vary for several reasons.

Building type, weather conditions, working hours and number of occupants, are the reasons behind the variations of EUI.

  • Building type – Supermarkets have the highest EUIs. Hospitals have EUI values that are three times higher than that of educational institutions. It may be because more equipment is being used in hospitals and lighting is turned on for almost 24 hours a day.
  • Weather conditions – variations in temperature results to different heating or cooling requirements. There are differences in heating and cooling costs per area. Those differences must be taken into consideration when computing for the EUI value.
  • Working hours – longer working hours means more lighting and equipment usage resulting to higher energy consumption and EUI value.
  • Number of occupants – EUIs are measured using the total annual energy consumption and the floor area of a building. Between two similar buildings with the same floor area but a different number of occupants, the building with the higher number of occupants would have a higher EUI Value.

Choosing a Dust Control System

So, the Department of Mineral Resources (DMR) has been knocking on your door about the dust emissions on the mine. Or perhaps the community has been complaining about pollution. Whatever your motivation – are you aware of what dust control entails? What is available on the market? What is regarded as “best practice”? What additional benefits can be offered? Who are the market leaders?

A scenario that presents itself too often is a request for quote (or better known as a RFQ) for the supply of a dust control unit for a mine. The RFQ would typically contain detailed specifications formulated by the engineering department and passed on to the supply chain managers that subsequently issued the RFQ to potential suppliers that has been identified by the commercial department. Nothing out of the ordinary there. Or is there? What really happened is that the engineering department had collaborated with the commercial department to come up with a scheme to waste funds.

Let me explain. What should have happened is for the engineering department to first recognise the fact that they are mining experts and not emission control experts. Therefore, it would make sense to consult with experts on the matter, and come up with a scope of supply that makes sense.

A logical starting point would be to speak to your neighbours. Remember that, when it comes to ground water and air contamination, your neighbour would want you to put in at least as much effort as he does. Because pinning down an environmental criminal is like trying to ‘pin the tail on the donkey’. Pollution created by your neighbour could settle on your front porch and make you look like the guilty one, and similarly, measures implemented by your neighbour could benefit you. If both you and your neighbour implement effective measures, the DMR will have to look elsewhere for a culprit. Another very important reason for looking at what your neighbour does to curb emissions, is to form an idea of what works and what doesn’t.

But there are a few simple considerations that should cross your mind before you decide on how to approach the decision making process for a dust control system:

1. Extraction or suppression

2. Chemical or water only

3. High or low pressure (fog or spray)

Extraction vs Suppression:

A dry filtering system (bag house) is an effective way to control dust emissions. Airborne dust is sucked up through ducting chutes above each transfer point. The dust is then collected via filtering of the air.

An alternative is to separate the air and dust via wet cyclone scrubbers. However, capital expense and maintenance cost often makes this option not viable in most cases:

1. High capital cost – multiple extraction points required.

2. Labour intensive and costly maintenance

3. Short lifespan

4. High energy cost

5. Waste product to deal with (collected fines)

6. No lasting (downstream) benefit

Suppression in general is a better option than extraction primarily due to the fact you would not have to deal with collected fines, and maintenance is not labour-intensive. An additional benefit is that you do not remove sellable material from the ore stream.

Even if you have had no previous experience with emission control technologies, you could implement an effective program to reduce airborne dust. The key is to speak to the right people and consider the following:

1. Does the potential supplier have reference sites

2. Can you visit the sites

3. Do they effectively reduce emissions

Once you have the answer to the above, your next set of questions should be (in order to select potential suppliers):

1. How many sites does the potential supplier have

2. Does he have experience with your material

3. Are the system maintenance friendly (cost effective)

4. If chemicals are used – are the chemicals safe for employees

5. Will the chemicals interfere with mining processes

6. Can they prove emission levels

7. Can they prove consumption figures

Benmarc has been the recognised leader in dust mitigation around the world for more than 35 years. South African <mines> reap great environmental benefits from the services provided by Benmarc and its dedicated team of expert dust control specialists.

The Fifth Wave: Fifth Industrial Revolution

The fifth wave is the developing wave of the future key to personal and organizational success in the twenty -first century. The fifth wave will revolutionize how people deal with emotion and psychological impact on expanding knowledge and unrelenting change. More so, the fifth wave focuses on self-discovery that moves to the critical elements of relationship, commitment, accountability. This focus allows organization to clarify and act on core values, which ultimately serve to create tangible and unified culture.

Employees who develop the capacity for self-analysis and adaptive learning will provide organizations with a remarkable competitive advantage. In the fifth wave, leaders will require uncomfortable introspection, a willingness to eliminate dysfunctional performances, and determination to model a culture that can tolerate unpredictability, uncertainty and vulnerability.


The 5th wave is very innovative which serves as a key to a countries prosperity, security, better jobs, and better health, as well as responses to coming challenges like energy security and global warming.The thinking of 5th wave as a means of future industrial revolution, we think of steam engines and factories, but in fact, this was only one of many industrial revolutions. There has been a correlation between repeated technological revolutions and the waves of economic growth that carry then. Each of these waves is driven by a carrier-branch technology. There was a definition given to this as a new way of doing this so much more efficiently than the old ways that it reshapes every aspect of the economy. Here, we are going to look at the five carrier -branch technologies that did aid a countries economy for growth & development in the last 150 years:


Under the 5th wave future industrial revolution, there is presence of carrier -branch technologies that has a core input, for example coal, or iron, or oil, or computer chips, and give rise to a whole secondary economy of supporting industries and social institutions. Each wave follows a similar economic pattern -the initial invention creates a period of boom, with rising material wealth, but as the technology reaches a point of saturation, the economy enters a downswing or crisis of structural readjustment.

These upswings in the past lasted from 20 years to 30 years each, leading to a total cycle time of around 50 years The first practical steam locomotive, kicking off a two- decade long railroad -building boom. Better mining techniques lowered the cost of iron and coal, while railroad barons made immense fortunes and businessmen everywhere benefited from the lowered cost of transport. Tourism, hotels, restaurants, and national markets all owe their origins to the low cost and high speed of rail travel. The demands of financing and administering the new railroads led to new forms of social organization such as the joint stock corporation, dedicated administrators,and new educational institutions.

Humanity in the year 2100

In order to express the broadness and also wideness of the options, Dr. Kaku points on the Kardashev Scale created by Soviet astrophysicist Nikolai Kardashev. The scale, while purely theoretical, puts forward a simple framework for evaluating the technical development of any civilization originating from a cosmic perspective.

The scale begins at Type I and advances all of the right way to Type III, and that is aproximatelly 10-100 billion times better compared to a type II civilization:

Type I: Energizes its machines and cities with all the electricity which arrives at the planet earth.
Type II: Harnesses the strength of the sunshine. The physicist Freeman Dyson has postulated that a huge sphere may be positioned around a mother star to absorb its lighting.
Type III: This’s the realm of Star Trek and Empire Strikes Back. Each and every star is a thermonuclear furnace, along with a galactic civilization would really wear the power to drive machines efficiently and cleanly.

And so exactly where does fashionable human our society spring? Simple, says Dr. Kaku. We are type 0.7. Making use of dead organisms and plants to power devices is a comparatively archaic type of fueling the world of ours. But there is hope: annually, earth createsone3 % more energy than the 1 before, which places us merely approximately hundred years away from being a sort I along with a 1,000 years from turning into a type II civilization. “In aproximatelly hundred years time, the power output of the world will likely be much like the total length of sunshine which hits the planet itself,” he adds.